The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale.
The region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians, Celtici and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD.
Cale or Cailleah was the name of a Celtic deity and also the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River (present-day Vila Nova de Gaia), which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
Portugal is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy, a developed market, and high living standards. Portugal ranks above the OECD average in Mathematics, Science, and Reading, having been the country with the most expressive positive evolution throughout PISA's studies.Although historically a Catholic-majority country, in the last decades Portugal has transformed itself into a secular state with one of the world's highest rates of moral freedom.It was the first country to abolish life imprisonment have been legalized.Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.
At 1.7 million km Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest European nation-states, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
In 2001, Portugal became the first country in the world to decriminalize the possession and consumption of all illicit drugs, focusing on treatment and harm reduction, with dramatic drops seen in problematic drug use, HIV and hepatitis infection rates, overdose deaths, drug-related crime and incarceration rates.